The Athenaeum is happy to oblige, though the account may be a bit...biased.
In addition to Atlas, there is Vale to the south, Mistral to the southeast, and Vacuo to the southwest. (Everything is south of Atlas). Atlas is the most advanced by far.
Besides the ongoing struggle against the Grimm, there are quite a few wars in Remnant history, though none within the last generation. The biggest such conflict began about eighty years ago. Mantle (present-day Atlas) experienced a disastrous encounter with the Grimm, and instituted a number of ordering polices designed to prevent outbreaks of mass panic. Art and literature were heavily regulated. Mistral, allied with Mantle, agreed to adopt these Grimm Decrees, but Vale did not. Vale's refusal (and their rejection of Mantle's cultural advances) heightened tensions in Remnant. A joint settlement by Mistral and Vale erupted in civil war, which touched off a full-scale war between the polities. The war drove advances in military and Dust technology, but caused the loss of many settlements to Grimm. The threat of the Grimm was so great that when Grimm showed up to a battle, both sides would cease fighting to repel the Grimm assault.
Mantle and Mistral pressured Vacuo to support them, arguing that Vale needed to be stopped before the Grimm killed everyone involved. But Vacuo instead sided with Vale, dragging on the conflict further. After ten years of fighting, Mantle and Mistral launched a combined invasion of Vacuo in a desperate bid to end the fighting. But the combination of bad luck, interference by Vale, and Vacuo's perpetually nasty weather resulted in Mantle's defeat.
In the subsequent Vytal Peace Accord, Mantle managed to avoid ceding its sovereignty to the Queen of Vale, whose role in the war gave her outsized influence. After the war, slavery was abolished, all four governments restructured, and Faunus granted increased rights and their own continent, Menagerie. (The Discussion section of the Athenaeum contains a great deal of angry shouting about the wisdom of this choice). Finally, the four Huntsmen Academies were founded, one in each capital.
Things quieted down somewhat, with minimal conflict except for the Faunus Rights Revolution, triggered by Faunus dissatisfaction with their treatment and attempts to confine them to Menagerie. The Faunus officially won, but racial relations have been strained since and some parts of the world still consider Faunus to be second-class citizens. A group called the White Fang has been organizing protests, some of which have turned violent.
Faunus rights is one major controversy, and though Atlas learned from Mantle's mistakes, there is always the age-old debate about how much thought control is justified by the threat of Grimm.